Neuter, or Not to Neuter Your Dog: That is the Question

There are any variety of third-rail matters that sometimes electrify the conversationally unwary canine proprietor: Grains or grain-free? Dewclaw elimination, cropped ears and tails, or go away effectively be? Raw or cooked? Flat collars or choke, pinch, or digital? 

But canine homeowners who got here of age within the a long time earlier than spay/neuter practices grew to become de riguer are generally shocked by the cost, more and more standard, that sterilizing a canine is tantamount to condemning her or him to a shorter or extra painful life. After all, if you’re a decent canine proprietor, almost your complete maturity could have been spent judging individuals with reproductively intact canines – particularly intact mixed-breed canines – as supremely irresponsible. What provides? Why the reversal?

 Veterinary practitioners have lengthy dithered about what is likely to be the “best” time in a canine’s life to bear spay/neuter surgical procedure, and a few have theorized that coming to maturation with out the good thing about secondary sexual hormones may probably have deleterious results on well being. There have even been small research on the lookout for such. But there wasn’t any actually impactful information that made the typical canine proprietor query the knowledge of spay/neuter till a 2013 examine (Torres et al) out of the University of California – Davis that discovered a hyperlink between neutering and the chance of sure cancers and joint illness in Golden Retrievers.

Since then, there was a gentle trickle of research (with extra on the instant publication horizon) that study some side or one other of canine well being and the way it could also be affected by spay/neuter – and the impact of this never-ending drip of proof has been torture for a lot of canine homeowners. We thought we have been doing the proper factor by sterilizing our canines! 

But is it actually so dangerous to topic canines to spay/neuter? Many of the research that individuals cite to assist their claims that the follow is unhealthy for canines are based mostly on statistically tiny samples, or canines of a single breed. Extrapolating the outcomes of extremely restricted research to claim that spay/neuter is deleterious to all canines is sort of a attain. 

To assist you to perceive the fashionable claims that spay/neuter is dangerous for canines, we’ve checked out dozens of research analyzing some side of the attainable well being results of gonadectomy – the elimination of the canine’s gonads (intercourse organs, the testes in males and the ovaries in females). We’ll describe the proof and focus on what all of it means – however here’s a little trace about our conclusions: You are nonetheless going to must make your personal alternative about what’s “best” for you and your canine. And in case your canine is already gonadectomized, that’s okay! The proof shouldn’t be so cut-and-dried as to assist any across-the-board suggestions for all canines.

A Note About Terminology

The time period “neuter” can be utilized for each female and male canines, although it’s extra generally used to confer with the method of castration (elimination of testicles) in male canines. Castration is restricted to males, as spay is to females. 

Spay/neuter refers typically to the elimination of the gonads (the male’s testes and the feminine’s ovaries); that’s extra precisely referred to as a gonadectomy – however it needs to be famous that whereas the feminine’s uterus and uterine horns should not gonads, they’re additionally eliminated in spay surgical procedure. Confusingly, “spay” generally is used to confer with a hysterectomy – elimination of solely the uterus and uterine horns. Removal of the ovaries (sparing the uterus and uterine horns) is known as ovariectomy.

“Sterilization” is one other generic time period that’s steadily used, however it could actually confer with a course of that induces infertility with out gonadectomy. 

“Desexing” is a time period that has gained recognition in analysis literature. It’s outlined as castration or spaying an animal, however the phrase evokes sturdy unfavourable connotations for many individuals, who could concern it refers to someway eradicating the organic intercourse of a canine; it doesn’t! 

Since various strategies of stopping copy should not frequent but within the United States, nearly the entire analysis appears to be like at canines which have undergone spay (elimination of all reproductive organs) or castration; we are going to use the phrases “spay/neuter” and “gonadectomy” interchangeably.

There are different frequent phrases that confer with the age of gonadectomy. “Early age” or “prepubertal” spay/neuter signifies canines who’ve undergone gonadectomy prior to 6 months of age. “Pediatric” spay/neuter surgical procedure is normally outlined as that which happens between 6 and 16 weeks of age.


Before we have a look at the research that study the results of gonadectomy, it’s useful to grasp what capabilities the gonads have in addition to copy. 

Normal female and male canines every have a pair of gonads. 

The male gonads – the testes – reside within the scrotum and produce the male reproductive cells (spermatozoa, sperm for brief) in addition to androgen hormones that promote male traits. 

Sperm cells are fashioned within the seminiferous tubules within the testes; in between these tubules are teams of endocrine cells, referred to as interstitial cells, which produce androgens in response to luteinizing hormone (LH, generally known as interstitial cell stimulating hormone [ICSH]) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland positioned within the mind.

The principal androgen produced is testosterone, which is answerable for the event of the male reproductive system and secondary male intercourse traits, equivalent to male physique form and sexual habits. Testosterone is a steroid hormone that has an general anabolic impact on the physique, selling protein synthesis and development of tissues, encouraging the expansion of muscle mass and energy, growing bone density and energy, stimulating linear development, and supporting bone maturation – all of which leads to the bigger dimension and weight of male canines in comparison with females of the identical breed. 

Testosterone additionally stimulates improvement of the penis at puberty, the functioning of the prostate (a male accent intercourse gland), and activation of sperm formation. Testosterone reaches the best stage in male canines round 6 to 12 months of age after which it begins to plateau. As quickly as a male canine is castrated, testosterone manufacturing ceases.

The ovaries are the feminine gonads, producing the ova (reproductive cells) and the feminine hormones estrogen (a compound time period for the estrus-producing hormones estradiol, estriol, and estrone) and progestin. 

Estrogens are produced by the cells of the ovarian follicles and are answerable for feminine secondary intercourse attribute improvement, contributing to the maturation of the reproductive organs, management of the reproductive system, and for the behavioral and bodily modifications that happen in preparation for breeding. 

Progestins, and particularly progesterone, are produced by the corpus luteum, a mass of cells that develops from the empty follicle after ovulation; they assist put together the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg, keep being pregnant, and promote the event of the mammary glands. 

The grownup male canine’s testes produce spermatozoa and hormones constantly; in contast, grownup feminine canines produce reproductive cells in cycles, occurring about as soon as each six months. 

The estrous cycle is managed by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland. Coinciding with this brief interval of ovulation, estrogen ranges rise, adopted by an increase in progesterone ranges. After ovulation, progesterone ranges stay excessive for a number of weeks, even when the canine has not change into pregnant. When a feminine canine shouldn’t be in estrus, her estrogen and progesterone ranges are low.

In addition to those reproduction-based duties, the canine’s hormones perform as chemical messengers with far-reaching and numerous duties within the physique – and sure embody some which have but to be recognized. It shouldn’t be shocking, then, that researchers finding out the results of gonadectomy on canines maintain developing with outcomes that require additional exploration. 

A quick historical past of spay/neuter

Early within the 20th century United States, nearly all of canines by no means noticed a veterinarian. Very few have been subjected to a process that may forestall them from reproducing. (If they have been, spays have been typically carried out at Three to six months of age and castration as early as 4 weeks!)

Many pet canines have been allowed to roam and reproduce willy nilly till the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the stray canine inhabitants grew giant sufficient to pose issues in human society, together with canine bites, the concern of rabies, and the price of public animal management companies wanted to cope with canines and dog-related hazards to human well being. 

By the early ’70s, animal management companies have been impounding tens of millions of canines yearly, and so they euthanized most of them. In a 1973 survey of shelters, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) estimated {that a} staggering 13.5 million canines and cats have been euthanized nationwide by shelters. That variety of euthanized animals lastly sparked sufficient outrage for society to start making an attempt to resolve the issue. 

It was acknowledged from the outset that efforts to forestall canines from reproducing could be a critically essential weapon within the conflict on pet overpopulation, with spay/neuter surgical procedure being the commonest methodology of sterilization for canines. 

Prior to this time, within the unusual occasion {that a} veterinarian advisable the process to a canine proprietor, it was offered as a comfort – a method to cut back behaviors the numerous homeowners discovered problematic, equivalent to straying – in addition to a method to forestall undesirable puppies. Starting within the mid 1970s, nevertheless, canine homeowners have been inspired to take credit score for selling the well-being of the general canine inhabitants when their canine’s potential for contributing to the homeless canine inhabitants had been eradicated.

Over the following 4 a long time, the follow of routine spay/neuter surgical procedure grew to become the societal norm on this nation. An estimated 85% of companion canines within the U.S. have undergone elective gonadectomy. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), there are at the moment no state or federal legal guidelines requiring gonadectomy of all canines within the U.S., and the AVMA “does not support regulations or legislation mandating spay/neuter of privately owned, non-shelter dogs and cats.” Some states have proposed obligatory gonadectomy legal guidelines, although none have been profitable. There are, nevertheless, cities and different native governments which have proposed and adopted ordinances relating to spay/neuter legal guidelines. Many municipalities require increased licensing charges for intact canines, sterilization for canines deemed vicious or harmful, in addition to requiring gonadectomies for all shelter animals previous to launch.

 Where do issues stand at present? No statistics can be found to show the speed of spay/neuter compliance is declining, but conversations amongst canine homeowners at present display an elevated consciousness of the potential detrimental results of the process. No point out of spay/neuter practices could be made on-line or in print with out commentary from homeowners who’ve been satisfied by no matter vital literature they’ve encountered (or their private experiences) that spay/neuter is unmistakably and unambiguously dangerous.

We’re not that positive. 

Understanding historical past can information our current day selections. No one desires to return to a world the place greater than 13 million canines are being put to loss of life in shelters yearly, and we all know that not all canine homeowners are able to stopping their intact canines from reproducing. As historical past marches on, we stay up for research that can allow researchers to make extra focused suggestions, in order that any proprietor can discover info that can forestall her from selecting a plan of action that can harm her canine greater than it helps the general canine inhabitants.



The following is an outline of the key areas of concern relating to the attainable antagonistic well being results of canine spay/neuter and findings from related research. The research talked about within the textual content beneath (and referenced utterly on web page 22) are a few of the most steadily cited in discussions in veterinary literature. 


Overall it seems that spay/neuter is related to an elevated life-span. However, bear in mind that a lot of the research that concluded this regarded solely at gonadectomy (versus different strategies of sterilization) and normally didn’t bear in mind the age of spay/neuter. 

Furthermore, the prevalence of getting spay/neuter carried out could contribute to an elevated chance of higher husbandry and veterinary care, which theoretically has a constructive impact on life expectancy. 

In the retrospective examine by Hoffman et al (2013), the information of greater than 40,000 sterilized and intact home canines listed within the Veterinary Medical Database (a group of knowledge from veterinary instructing hospitals) have been analyzed for associations between gonadectomy and lifespans and causes of loss of life. It was discovered that sterilized canines lived on common 1.5 years longer than intact canines and life expectancy elevated by 13.Eight % in males and 26.Three % in females. 

Studies have discovered that intact canines usually tend to be relinquished than people who have undergone spay or neuter.

The examine additionally discovered that intact canines have been extra more likely to die of infectious illness, trauma, vascular illness, and degenerative illness, and sterilized canines have been extra more likely to die of neoplasia (together with an elevated chance of transitional cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, lymphoma, and mast cell cancers) and immune-mediated illnesses. No causal relationship was discovered; observe that gonadectomized canines stay longer and most cancers is extra prevalent in older canines. 

The dataset didn’t embody at what age a canine was spayed or neutered, or whether or not a canine had reproduced previous to gonadectomy. 

The Hoffman examine findings have been supported by Banfield’s State of Pet Health 2013 Report, which checked out information from Banfield amenities throughout the nation and included 2.2 million canines.

Orthopedic Concerns

The literature evaluate by Houlihan (2017) appears to be like on the analysis on musculoskeletal illnesses and attainable associations with spay/neuter. Several research have discovered gonadectomy to be a danger issue for improvement of cruciate ligament illness (CLD) and hip dysplasia (HD) in each female and male canines. 

HD has a excessive genetic element however is acknowledged as a multifactorial situation. Incidence of CLD tends to happen in younger, lively, giant breed canines from degenerative or traumatic causes, however it has additionally been correlated to ageing, conformational abnormalities, and immune-mediated joint points. 

One focus for latest analysis is the evaluation of the tibial plateau angle (TPA) – the slope on the high of the tibia. The steeper the TPA, the extra stress on the ligament leading to a rise in danger for CLD. Studies have demonstrated that the TPA is steeper in canines that bear gonadectomy earlier than the closure of the tibial development plates. The danger, nevertheless, could have a breed predisposition: Hart et al (2014) discovered that CLD danger elevated in Golden Retrievers who have been gonadectomized between the ages 6 and 11 months, however the danger for Labrador Retrievers didn’t improve when present process gonadectomy on the identical age.

In a examine of 759 client-owned Golden Retrievers, Torres et al (2013) regarded on the results of spay/neuter on joint problems and most cancers. The authors state, “An important point to make is that the results of this study, being breed-specific, with regard to the effects of early and late neutering, cannot be extrapolated to other breeds, or dogs in general.” 

It is effectively documented that each testosterone and estrogen play an essential function within the development and maturation of bones. A lower in bone density in spayed Beagles has been described in a single examine, however these outcomes have but to be reproduced in subsequent research.

One heightened concern is whether or not gonadectomy impacts the closure of development plates (physes). Salmeri et al (1991) discovered that general development charges seem like unaffected by spay/neuter, though prepubertal gonadectomy has been related to delayed closure, leading to lengthening of related limb bones. While this may be statistically related, it isn’t readily seen or decided to be clinically related. 

The age at which development plates shut depends on breed, genetic elements and problems, physiological circumstances, illness, and dietary circumstances (unbalanced or incomplete diets can lead to development abnormalities). Certain classes of breeds, equivalent to working, herding, and sporting breeds, present better susceptibility to orthopedic problems typically; particularly canines having giant stature or nice substance are at a better danger for hip and elbow dysplasia (Oberbauer et al, 2019).

Spain et al (2004) discovered no particular correlation between age at spay/neuter and incidence charges of arthritis or lengthy bone fractures, together with physeal fractures. This retrospective examine on the Erie County (New York) SPCA checked out 1,842 canines who underwent spay or neuter surgical procedure between 6 weeks and 12 months of age. Dogs who had the process earlier than 5.5 months of age have been discovered to have a better incidence (6.7%) of hip dysplasia and have been recognized at an earlier age when in comparison with canines present process the process on the age of 5.5 months or older (4.7%). 

However, these canines who had spay/neuter surgical procedure after they have been older than 5.5 months have been 3 times extra more likely to be euthanized attributable to hip dysplasia than those that had surgical procedure after they have been youthful. This means that early gonadectomy could also be related to a much less extreme type of HD.

Estrogen has plenty of metabolic capabilities and its impact on muscle, tendons, and ligaments has change into the main target of extra analysis. Chidi-Ogbolu and Baar (2019) discovered that, whereas estrogen improves muscle mass and energy and will increase the collagen content material of connective tissues, it decreases stiffness in tendons and ligaments, which may immediately have an effect on efficiency and damage charges. (Risk of cranial cruciate ligament [CCL]damage  seems to extend with spay/neuter throughout the final canine inhabitants in addition to within the particular person breeds studied.)

Kustriz (2007) didn’t discover any research at the moment that may implicate modifications in physeal closure with subsequent asynchrony of lengthy bone development and abnormalities in joint formation as a explanation for CCL rupture in canines.

Study Considerations

When you learn any examine (or learn about any examine) that presents details about the advantages or hazards of spay/neuter, it’s essential to attempt to establish and maintain the constraints of the examine firmly in thoughts. Not all examine conclusions will probably be related to all canines.

Most of the analysis performed on the well being results of spay/neuter is retrospective; researchers study previous and current medical information for a given inhabitants of canines and search for patterns and traits with a view to develop hypotheses. These retrospective research can reveal solely associations; some could also be confounding whereas others are instructive and significant. 

It’s difficult to guage the results of spay/neuter and the resultant lack of hormones on canine well being. The multifactorial nature of many illnesses can intervene with definitive dedication of causation. In people, for instance, areas of investigation associated to most cancers improvement embody such elements as age, gender, ethnicity, weight loss program, occupation, and setting, leading to a posh composite of potential well being impacts. Rarely are elements like these taken under consideration in veterinary research, however analysis is starting to broaden to incorporate these concerns. 

When contemplating a examine’s conclusions, don’t neglect to guage general incidence charges for illnesses which can be of concern. If an general charge is uncommon or low, and the chances are proven by a examine to extend with spay/neuter, the general danger goes to stay uncommon or low. Kustritz (2007) categorized 11 totally different canine circumstances based mostly on their incidence charges of uncommon, low, average, or excessive. Those circumstances thought-about excessive (mammary neoplasia, pyometra, benign prostatic hypertrophy), together with one within the average class (testicular tumors), all skilled a lower in affect when gonadectomized. The circumstances rated uncommon (transitional cell carcinoma), low (prostatic tumors, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament illness, hypothyroidism), and average (urinary incontinence) have all been proven to extend with spay/neuter, however even with a rise, that danger continues to be small general.

Biases can have an effect on the worth of a analysis examine, even whether it is unintentional. Recall bias can happen with research that ask homeowners to offer info; the accuracy of householders’ stories about their canines could be extremely problematic. Selection bias happens when the collection of a bunch for examine doesn’t obtain correct randomization. Many research are affected by this bias as a result of the datasets are sometimes obtained from information at veterinary instructing/referral hospitals. This leaves out a share of canines from the final inhabitants that don’t have their illnesses dropped at veterinary consideration (which additionally skews incidence charges of illnesses, as they aren’t reported). Furthermore, canines who’re handled at these hospitals are apt to be from upper- and middle-income homeowners and have a tendency to have circumstances which can be treatable to some extent. 

Finally, typically research solely embody one breed of canine, leading to a breed bias; research of this kind can’t be extrapolated to all breeds, however they generally present helpful info. 



Behavior is the results of a posh interplay between genetics and setting. It has been famous that spay/neuter can mitigate some behaviors – and that’s about so far as the information can take you. The few results which were studied and located to be statistically related have typically been constructive.

Studies typically report that spay/neuter reduces libido and reduces the related reproductive behaviors. Spayed females have a tendency to not have interaction in any of the behaviors related to estrus and due to this fact don’t hunt down breeding alternatives.  

Neutered males have a tendency to point out a lower in roaming, intermale aggression, mounting, and urine-marking behaviors. There is constant proof that the frequency of urine marking does not rely on the age at gonadectomy. 

Kustritz (2007) reported that neither reproductive standing nor age on the time of spay/neuter has been discovered to have an effect on the trainability of working canines.

According to Duffy and Serpell (2006), behavioral modifications are tough to measure; the parameters with which they’re measured are too subjective. Breed, intercourse, and particular person variations have to be thought-about when analyzing the manifestation of behavioral modifications following spay/neuter. As a outcome, there’s not a transparent consensus on what the true results are. 

Furthermore, “interpretation of the literature related to behavioral changes is further complicated by various definitions of aggression” (Houlihan, 2017); because of this, proof for the affect of gonadectomy on aggressive habits is inconsistent and generally contradictory.

Kustritz (2007) reported that a number of research confirmed a rise amongst feminine canines of heightened reactivity towards people following spay. It is hypothesized that this can be attributable to a lower in estrogen and oxytocin ranges. Additionally, testosterone has been proven to extend confidence; this can be helpful for timid canines, however is probably not for overconfident ones.

Reproductive System

Spay surgical procedure has been proven to have a useful impact on life-limiting illnesses in feminine canines. It not solely eliminates the chance of pyometra and uterine and ovarian cancers, but additionally reduces the chance of mammary most cancers. 

Research into the affect of spaying on mammary most cancers has been in depth. Dorn et al (1968) discovered that there’s sturdy proof that ovarian hormones are important for the event of most instances of mammary most cancers, so elimination of the ovaries decreases this danger. Subsequent research have continued to assist the protecting impact of early spay.

The best profit happens if spay takes place earlier than the primary estrus; the reported charges are .05% if earlier than estrus, 8% if carried out after the primary estrus, growing to 26% after second estrus cycle (Schneider et al, 1969). Mammary most cancers charges improve drastically with age in canines. Purebred canines have been proven to have two instances the speed of mammary most cancers when in comparison with mixed-breed canines of the identical age. The incidence charge of mammary neoplasia is estimated to be about 3.4%, with about 50% being benign fibroadenomas and 50% malignant adenocarcinomas.

Castration eradicates the chance of testicular most cancers (because the testes are eliminated) in males. Castration additionally reduces the chance of age-related prostate points, benign prostatic hyperplasia (frequent however not typically life-limiting), and perianal adenomas.

Several research that present testicular neoplasia is frequent in older (imply age of 10 years) intact male canines; nevertheless, metastasis is rare and castration at time of prognosis is healing. Benign prostatic hypertrophy can be frequent in intact male canines (63.4% in a single examine). It tends to manifest in 50% of canines aged 2-Three years, and in 75-80% by age 6. Castration leads to a lower in prostate dimension leading to a discount of medical indicators (Kustritz, 2007).


The literature evaluate by Urfer and Kaeberlein (2019) stories that there are numerous research that present proof for a rise in danger for most cancers in canines of each sexes which have undergone gonadectomy. Smith (2014) summarized that male canines have been at an elevated danger after castration for creating cardiac tumors, osteosarcoma, prostatic tumors, transitional cell carcinoma, and lymphoma, whereas the chance decreased for testicular most cancers. 

In feminine canines, there was an elevated danger post-spay of cardiac tumors, cardiac and splenic hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, mast cell tumors, and lymphoma, whereas the chance decreased for ovarian, uterine, and mammary cancers. 

Many of the research didn’t take age under consideration – which is arguably crucial issue for tumor improvement. However, when the research did take age under consideration, elevated age was discovered to be a better danger issue than spay/neuter. 

It’s been stated that most cancers is, finally, the results of failed immune surveillance. It is suspected, however not but confirmed, that cancer-hunting immune cells rely to some extent on alerts from the intercourse hormones to carry out this surveillance. Researchers have speculated that the cancer-hunting immune cells could also be much less efficient at this job in gonadectomized canines as a result of lack of hormonal signalling.

In the breed-specific retrospective examine by Kent et al (2018), the timing of spay/neuter was not out there for a lot of the Golden Retrievers. While the examine assessed most cancers as a explanation for loss of life, the affiliation of hormonal publicity on lifespan or the chance of loss of life by most cancers couldn’t be evaluated, nor was it a part of the analysis for the chance of most cancers improvement. Given that Golden Retrievers are recognized to be at a excessive danger for most cancers, these outcomes can’t be extrapolated to different breeds. 

The examine by Cooley et al (2002) discovered that Rottweilers of each sexes who had undergone early spay/neuter had increased dangers for bone sarcoma (1 in 4) when in comparison with Rottweilers who have been intact all through their lifetime. However, the examine acknowledges that it isn’t recognized how hormones have an effect on the event of osteosarcoma. Makielski et al (2019) revealed a comparative evaluate of osteosarcoma danger elements in canines and people and included this commentary on trending present hormonal research:

“… associations between reproductive status and development of osteosarcoma have been inconsistent. Although several reports suggest that spayed and/or neutered dogs have higher incidence of certain cancers, including osteosarcoma, the relationship between reproductive status and cancer risk may be confounded by other variables, such as the documented tendency toward increased adiposity and body condition in gonadectomized dogs.”


In canines, weight problems is influenced by weight loss program, breed, exercise stage, and age, however spay/neuter has additionally been reported to be a standard predisposing danger issue for elevated physique weight. There is conflicting info as as to whether gonadectomy alters metabolism (Reichler, 2009). It is speculated that gonadectomized canines typically have decrease metabolic charges (it has been estimated that they might require as a lot as 30% fewer energy) and have a tendency to realize weight greater than intact canines, nevertheless, the trigger and impact relationship shouldn’t be effectively outlined. 

Dogs who’ve been spayed or neutered typically have decrease metabolic charges and could also be predisposed to weight problems.

Spain et al (2004) performed a inhabitants examine that indicated that gonadectomy of canines earlier than 6 months of age is related to a decrease prevalence of weight problems when in comparison with these present process gonadectomy after 6 months of age. 

In 2019, Bjørnvad et al revealed a examine of dog- and owner-related danger elements for weight problems in Danish companion canines. The analysis discovered castrated male canines have been at elevated danger for weight problems; it’s suspected that this can be attributable to a discount in testosterone and a subsequent decreasing of basal metabolic charge. Female canines have been discovered to be in danger no matter reproductive standing. They additionally discovered that there was a posh affiliation between the proprietor’s weight, the canine’s weight, and feeding habits.

Urinary System

Studies place the incidence of urinary incontinence in spayed feminine canines at 4% to 20%, in comparison with a charge of 0.4% to eight% for intact females. Spayed canines could develop incontinence inside days of surgical procedure or extra generally years later; it’s sometimes managed with remedy. Large and big breeds seem to have a better danger. Other elements which will contribute to the situation and want additional analysis are urethral size, resting place of the urinary bladder, breed, thyroid stage, allergic reactions, and stage of weight problems.

Studies are contradictory in relation to figuring out a correlation between age at time of spay and the chance of creating incontinence.  Spain et al (2004) and Thrusfield et al (1998) reported a rise in urinary incontinence in females who have been spayed at an early age, but different research have did not assist this conclusion. More analysis is required, however in these research that did discover a correlation, it was related solely with pediatric (6-12 weeks) gonadectomy. Females spayed at an early age have additionally been reported to have had a barely increased incidence of bladder infections, however these infections have been simply handled and didn’t change into persistent.

It has been theorized that it’s the lack of estrogen that causes incontinence in spayed females, however that is controversial and never absolutely supported by analysis. Increased charges of incontinence should not reported in pregnant females although they’ve extraordinarily low estrogen ranges throughout being pregnant. 

Palm and Reichler (2012) report that incontinence in spayed canines has been efficiently handled with use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) superagonist implants. The implants work by suppressing the discharge of gonadotropins. 

In distinction, surgical gonadectomy will increase the discharge of gonadotropins. This means that an elevated danger for incontinence shouldn’t be attributable to the dearth of intercourse hormones, however fairly by the elevated ranges of gonadotropins induced by elimination of the ovaries.

Male canines who’ve been castrated prepubertally are inclined to have a smaller penis and prepuce, however their urethral diameter and performance are the identical as canines neutered later and no medical significance or situation has been related to this distinction (Salmeri et al, 1991).

Immune System

Findings from Sundberg et al (2016) recommend that spay/neuter is related to an elevated danger for sure autoimmune problems. Six of the 11 immune illnesses evaluated (atopic dermatitis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Addison’s illness, hypothyroidism, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and inflammatory bowel illness) confirmed an elevated prevalence in gonadectomized canines. 

The examine notes that although the dataset included greater than 90,000 canines and expression of the illnesses have been statistically related, the precise incidence charge was not excessive and it declined over the 15-year analysis. 

Given that this was a retrospective examine restricted to canines seen at a referral veterinary hospital, it could not mirror incidence charges inside the inhabitants at giant however fairly could also be biased to complicated or extra extreme instances. 

Cognitive Function

There has been restricted analysis performed on the chance that cognitive perform could also be altered because of spay/neuter. A comparability of the development of cognitive dysfunction in intact and castrated male canines was carried out within the Hart examine (2001) with a small pattern dimension (6 canines); it revealed a slowing of development within the intact canines. 

In distinction, a 2000 examine by Waters et al discovered that intact Beagles confirmed DNA injury to the neurons within the mind when in comparison with castrated Beagles (once more, pattern dimension was small, with solely 4 canines in every group). This is an space of analysis that’s simply starting to be explored. Much extra analysis is required to grasp the processes that affect cognitive perform and the way they might be modified by spay/neuter.


Statistically, puppies are much less more likely to die underneath anesthesia and get well quicker from gonadectomy than their grownup counterparts. Complications arising from the process are unusual and the charges are constant throughout ages. 

Doing what you assume is correct

Parker, good-looking and sound at two

In 2018, my five-month-old, intact Border Collie started to show an irregular outward flip to his left entrance leg. Parker’s orthopedic surgeon recognized him with an early closure of the ulnar development plate, most likely because of inury. The ulna ceased rising whereas the radius continued to elongate. The radius started to bow because it was restricted by the nongrowing ulna, ensuing within the outward splay of the leg. Ultimately, his leg was repaired inside just a few levels of regular via a sequence of surgical procedures as he grew. 

Knowing that my younger pup confronted a number of surgical procedures, I didn’t need to must put him via an extra anesthetic for neuter surgical procedure inside the subsequent 12 months and opted to have his gonadectomy accomplished throughout one among his orthopedic procedures.

Parker’s intact male littermate, Hero.

Some buddies questioned my determination after they heard that I used to be going to have my younger canine neutered, citing unnamed “studies” alleging that early spay/neuter can have a disastrous impact on the bones and development plates. I researched all of the research I might discover – and concluded that they have been restricted in scope. But I additionally consulted along with his orthopedic surgeon (one who treats a large number of canine athletes). He associated that he had not seen any unfavourable impact of early spay/neuter within the animals he handled. I used to be conscious that this was anecdotal proof, but when the particular person engaged on the bones of agility canines wasn’t seeing something he might relate to early spay/neuter, that was ok for me.

Two years later my boy is comfortable, wholesome, and lively with no residual orthopedic considerations. His look is much like his dad (intact), mother (lately spayed), and sister (intact) from one other litter, however not a lot like one among his intact male littermates. Is this a results of the dearth of testosterone? Or attributable to his personal particular person genetic construction and setting? Did neutering him “early” (at 6 months of age) predispose him to most cancers and different well being considerations? While I’ll surprise about these points, I’m assured that I made the perfect determination I might for me and my canine at the moment.

Parker’s dam, Honey, was lately spayed.
Parker most resembles his intact full sister, Wynnie.
Parker’s sire, Flash, was intact all through his lifetime.


Even a minimal survey of the analysis relating to the results of spay/neuter reveals that the state of affairs is extraordinarily complicated and, at instances, ambiguous. There is proof to assist correlations for each useful and antagonistic results, however much more essential is that it demonstrates how a lot we nonetheless don’t perceive about reproductive hormones and the results of spay/neuter. 

When the time comes so that you can make spay/neuter selections for a canine that you do not need to breed, bear in mind: There is not any single plan of action that’s “best” for all canines and all homeowners, and don’t let anybody make you’re feeling dangerous on your determination, no matter it’s – that’s, so long as it doesn’t finish with an unintended breeding and undesirable puppies. 

Here’s the one time that we really feel it makes essentially the most sense for an proprietor to present extra weight to revealed analysis than their very own preferences: when the particular person owns a purebred canine of a breed that has been the topic of enormous, well-respected research of the results of spay/neuter on canines of that particular breed, and the examine discovered clear and vital statistical benefits to a sure plan of action. In that case, we might strongly advocate studying the conclusion of these research and discussing them along with your veterinarian. Oberbauer et al (2019) decided that many canine well being problems mirror the canines’ genetic heritage. Within breeds, there could also be shared genetic susceptibility that will increase danger for sure illnesses inside breeds and this danger could also be enhanced with neutering. 

However, it’s a must to take single-breed research with a grain of salt in case your canine does not share any of the topic breed’s genes. Some of those research are extensively cited by individuals who assume the research ought to inform the choices of all canine homeowners, however the findings typically are contradicted when utilized to a different breed.

Some individuals strongly consider that it’s unethical to spay or neuter canines, as a result of the process irretrieveably alters the canine’s physiology and may may trigger an antagonistic aspect impact, maybe years sooner or later. As we’ve described, nevertheless, intact canines are additionally susceptible to antagonistic well being circumstances; there merely isn’t a alternative that doesn’t have penalties! 


As we’ve said elsewhere on this article, it has change into type of politically appropriate at present to take care of a canine in his or her intact state. But this isn’t one thing that everybody can handle in a accountable style!  If there’s a single weak hyperlink in a family, whether or not it’s a forgetful baby, a distracted grownup, or a less-than-super-secure fence, accidents can and can occur. 

We know homeowners who swear their feminine canines by no means left their sides and had zero contact with one other canine, and but – poof, a virgin being pregnant? Doubtful, and irresponsible, too. 

And whereas some individuals will attempt to make you’re feeling dangerous about it, it’s okay to confess that you don’t get pleasure from dwelling with an intact canine of both intercourse!  If you have got grown up in a time and place the place actually all of the canines you’ve ever recognized have been neutered, you is likely to be fairly alarmed on the persona change exhibited by your feminine canine when she comes into warmth. You could not really feel comfy with a few of the extra strongly masculine attributes of an intact male canine, which can embody extra aggressive urine-marking, humping, or overzealous sexual curiosity in feminine canines. 

Also, there are numerous people who find themselves strongly dedicated to adopting solely from shelters or rescue organizations, the place spay/neuter shouldn’t be solely mandated however may additionally have been carried out on very younger puppies. Not solely is prepubertal gonadectomy an essential software towards pet overpopulation, it’s seemingly to enhance the percentages that canines will probably be retained by their homeowners. Studies have discovered that intact canines usually tend to be relinquished than people who have undergone spay or neuter. 

For intact canines with houses, veterinarians and homeowners are challenged with making the perfect determination for that particular canine. An knowledgeable determination requires an analysis reflective of our canines and our danger tolerances. Every canine is a person, together with how they reply to gonadectomy or remaining intact. We at all times advocate consulting along with your veterinarian to find out the perfect technique on your canine based mostly on age, physique situation, breed, genetics, life-style, habits, temperament, and copy administration – after which taking accountability on your alternative. 

Spay/Neuter Study References

If you’ve gotten this far, we applaud you! It’s quite a lot of info! But if you wish to delve much more deeply into the analysis on the attainable well being results of spay/neuter, this listing is a superb useful resource. It’s not possible to say each examine on the topic, however this listing consists of all of the research referenced within the foregoing article in addition to different steadily cited works. 

Banfield Applied Research and Knowledge Team. “Banfield Pet Hospital State of Pet Health 2013 Report, Trends of Life Spans for Dogs and Cats.”

Bentley A, Thalheim L. “Controversies in spaying and neutering: Effects on cancer and other conditions.” Cornell University Veterinary Specialists, Stamford, CT.

Bjørnvad CR, Gloor S, Johansen SS, et al. “Neutering increases the risk of obesity in male dogs but not in bitches: A cross-sectional study of dog- and owner-related risk factors for obesity in Danish companion dogs.” Prev Vet Med  2019; 170:104730. 

Chidi-Ogbolu N, Baar Okay. “Effect of estrogen on musculoskeletal performance and injury risk.” Front Physiol 2019; Jan 15; 9:1834.

Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, et al. “Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 1434–1440.

Dorn CR, Taylor D, Schneider R, et al. “Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California.” J Natl Cancer Inst 1968; 40:307-318.

Duffy DL, Serpell JA, Hsu Y. “Breed differences in canine aggression.” Appl Anim Behav Sci 2008; 114:441–460.

Duffy DL, Serpell JA. “Non-reproductive effects of spaying and neutering on behavior in dogs. Presentation from proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control, 2006.” Alliance for Contraception in Cats & Dogs.

Duval JM, Budsberg SC, Flo GL. “Breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 215: 811–814.

Farhoody P, Mallawaarachchi I, Tarwater PM, et al. “Aggression toward familiar people, strangers, and conspecifics in gonadectomized and intact dogs.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2018; 5:18. 

Grumbach M. “Estrogen, bone growth and sex: a sea of change in conventional wisdom.” J Ped Endocrinol Metab 2000; 13: 1439–1455.

Hart BL, Eckstein RA. “The role of gonadal hormones in the occurrence of objectionable behaviors in dogs and cats.” Appl Anim Behav Sci 1997; 52: 331–344.

Hart BL, Hart LA, Thigpen AP, et al. “Neutering of German Shepherd Dogs: Associated joint disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence.” Vet Med Sci 2016; 2: 191–199.

Hart BL, Hart LA, Thigpen AP, Willits NH. “Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers.” PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e102241.

Hoffman JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DE. “Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs.” PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e61082.

Houlihan KE. “A literature review on the welfare implications of gonadectomy of dogs.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017; 250(10):1155–1166. 

Howe LM, Slater MR, Boothe HW, et al. “Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in dogs.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 218: 217–221.

Howe LM. “Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats.” Vet Med (Auckl). 2015 May 8;6:171-180.

Howe LM. “Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats, part I.” Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1999; 21: 103–110.

Howe LM. Rebuttal to “Early Spay Neuter Considerations for the Canine Athlete,” 2007.“-Early- spay/neuter-Considerations-for-Howe/f9c144ef90d398772af99856d6ec2518ae1a47a8Semantic Scholar.

Kent M, Burton J, Rebhun R. “Association of cancer-related mortality, age and gonadectomy in Golden Retriever canines at a veterinary tutorial middle.” (1989-2016). PLoS One 2018; 13(2): e0192578. 

Kustritz MV. “Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 1665–1675.

Kustritz MV. “Pros, cons, and techniques of pediatric neutering.” Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014; 44: 221–223.

Makielski, Okay., Mill, L., Sarver, A., et al. “Risk factors for development of canine and human osteosarcoma: A comparative review.” Vet. Sci 2019, 6(2), 48.

Oberbauer A, Keller G, Fanukla T. “Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds.” PLoS ONE 2017 12:e0172918.

Oberbauer, AM, Belanger, JM, & Famula, TR. “A review of the impact of neuter status on expression of inherited conditions in dogs.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2019; 6:397

Palm J, Reichler IM. “The use of deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin®) in companion animal medicine.” Schweiz Arch Tierheilkde 2012, 154, 7-12.

Reichler IM, Hubler M, Jöchle W, et al. “The effect of GnRH analogs on urinary incontinence after ablation of the ovaries in dogs.” Theriogenology 2003; 60(7):1207–1216.

Reichler IM. “Gonadectomy in cats and dogs: a review of risks and benefits.” Reprod Domest Anim 2009; 44: 29–35.

Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, et al. “Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991; 198: 1193–1203.

Salmeri KR, Olson PN, Bloomberg MS. “Elective gonadectomy in dogs: A review.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991; 198: 1183-1192.

Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DO. “Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival.” J Natl Cancer Inst 1969; 43: 1249–1261.

Serpell J, Hsu Y. “Effects of breed, sex, and neuter status on trainability in dogs.” Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals 2005; 18: 196-207.

Smith AN. “The role of neutering in cancer development.” Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014; 44: 965–975.

Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. “Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 244: 380–387.

Sundburg CR, Belanger JM, Bannasch DL, et al. “Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: A retrospective study.” BMC Vet Res 2016; 12: 278. 

Torres de la Riva G, Hart BL, Farver TB, et al. “Neutering dogs: Effects on joint disorders and cancers in Golden Retrievers.” PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e55937.

Urfer SR, Kaeberlein, M. “Desexing Dogs: A Review of the Current Literature.” Animals 2019; 9(12):1086.

Von Pfeil DJ, DeCamp CE, Abood SK. “The epiphyseal plate: Nutritional and hormonal influences; hereditary and other disorders.” Compend Contin Educ Vet 2009; 31(8):E1–E14.

Waters DJ, Kengeri SS, Clever B, et al. “Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: Lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs.” Aging Cell 2009; 8: 752–755.

Waters DJ, Shen S, Glickman LT. “Life expectancy, antagonistic pleiotropy, and the testis of dogs and men.” Prostate 2000; 43: 272–277

Zink MC, Farhoody P, Elser SE, et al. “Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonadectomized Vizslas.” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014; 244: 309–319.

Barbara Dobbins, a former canine coach, writes about canines and research canine ethology. She lives within the San Francisco Bay space together with her canines, Tico and Parker.

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